Electricity and Magnetism:
Alkaline-Manganese Batteries - Containing an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide, these batteries were developed in the early 1960's and still hold a strong position in today's market.
Ammonia Batteries - Intended for use in backup systems, ammonia batteries are comprised of a cylinder-shaped outer case, a gas generator, and a ammonia reservoir in its center.
Lithium/Iron Sulfide Batteries - Operating at a temperature range of 375-500 degrees Celsius, the lithium/iron sulfide battery possesses high power, works well in many environments, and is safe, but requires a thermal management system to maintain a proper temperature.
Lead-Acid Batteries - The typical lead-acid battery, with a large operating temperature range and high level of reliability, is primarily used as the source of electricity for cars.
Lithium Batteries - With high voltage, high specific energy, long shelf life, and an excellent power density, lithium batteries remain the standard for high performance batteries for the past ten years.
Ambient-Temperature Lithium Anode Reserve Batteries - Available in three major types, ambient-temperature lithium anode reserve batteries have undiminished power output even after storage periods over fourteen years.
Metal/Air Batteries - Recently, metal/air batteries have been the recipient of much interest, because of their high energy density, long shelf life, low cost, and environmental soundness.
Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - Using the technologies of both batteries and fuel cells, the nickel-hydrogen battery is a sealed secondary battery with a long life cycle, high specific energy, and high power density.
Nickel-Zinc Batteries - Characterized by a high specific energy and power capability, nickel-zinc batteries provide energy for electric vehicle applications, such as small vans and passenger cars.
Vented Sintered-Plate Nickel-Cadmium Batteries - A more evolved version of the simple nickel-cadmium battery, the Vented Sintered-Plate Nickel-Cadmium Battery is a secondary battery comprised of twenty individual cells.
Solid-Electrolyte Batteries - Solid-electrolyte batteries contain a solid instead of a liquid electrolyte, providing very high thermal stability, small self-discharge, and a greater tolerance for different environments.
Spin-Dependant Reserve Batteries - With a long shelf life and high performance at low temperatures, spin-dependant reserve batteries are used in many military applications.
Thermal Batteries - A primary reserve battery, thermal batteries combine the advantages of long shelf life, instant activation to a high power density, and usage in many environments with drawbacks such as low energy density, extremely high surface temperature, activated life of less than ten minutes, and one-time usage.
Zinc-Air Batteries - Primarily used in devices such as pagers, hearing aids, and other medical applications, these batteries come in many shapes and sizes with a voltage of 1.15-1.35 volts at 20 degrees Celsius.
Zinc-Carbon Batteries - Zinc-carbon batteries have become the standard for the consumer battery industry of today because of their low cost, long shelf life, and low leakage during storage.
Questions or comments? Send us an email.
© 1995-2021 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University. All Rights Reserved. No images, graphics, software, scripts, or applets may be reproduced or used in any manner without permission from the copyright holders. Use of this website means you agree to all of the Legal Terms and Conditions set forth by the owners.
This website is maintained by our