Molecular Expressions: The Pharmaceutical Collection
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The history of pharmaceutical agents is as old as that of man himself. Since the dawn of time, man has used a wide variety of substances to alleviate pain, fight disease, and improve health. Early remedies were often ineffective and sometimes very dangerous and potentially lethal. Today, there are thousands of natural and synthetic drugs that constitute the pharmaceutical palette of modern physicians.

The Molecular Expressions Pharmaceuticals Collection contains over 100 drugs that have been recrystallized and photographed under the microscope. Many of these are presented here and we hope that you enjoy your visit.

The Pharmaceutical links below lead to progressive JPEG images of the drugs that range in size from about 35 Kb up to about 85 Kb.


Acetaminophen (Tylenol) - One of best headache drugs on the market.

Acyclovir (Zovirax) - The best treatment for genital Herpes.

Adapalene (Differin) - Vitamin A relative used to treat acne vulgaris.

Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) - Anticancer agent that intercalates DNA.

Albuterol (Ventolin) - Bronchodilator that helps clear up the breathing tubes.

Aminocaproic acid (Amicar) - Fibrinolysis inhibitor that helps with severe bleeding.

Amlodipine (Norvasc) - This calcium channel blocker lowers blood pressure.

Amoxicillin (Amoxil) - Yet another penicillin derivative to fight infection.

Amphotericin B (Fungizone) - An antifungal agent to get rid of that nasty old fungal infection.

Ampicillin (Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen, Totacillin) - The old stand-by antibiotic.

Aspirin (Bayer, Excedrin) - Analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent, and said to lower the risk of heart attack.

Atropine (Atropair, Atropisol) - Acetylcholine inhibitor that will pick up your heartbeat.

Atorvastatin Calcium (Lipitor) - Cholesterol reducing agent that helps prevent strokes and heart attacks.

Azithromycin (Zithromax) - Another erythromycin-like antibiotic.

Azidothymidine (AZT, Zidovudine) - The first effective anti-aids drug.

Benzoyl Peroxide (PanOxyl) - The best thing for acne.

Beractant (Survanta) - Surfactant to help jump-start premature infants.

Butalbital (Butalan) - A very strong barbiturate sedative and depressant.

Caffeine (Caffedrine, Enerjets, NoDoz) - Stimulant with questionable medicinal value.

Candesartan Cilexetil (Atacand) - Angiotensin II blocker that helps lower blood pressure.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) - Anticonvulsant used to control seizures in epilepsy.

Cefotaxime (Claforan) - Cephalosporin antibiotic used in penicillin-resistant infections.

Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin) - Totally out of date antibiotic.

Chloroquine (Aralen) - One of the best antimalarial agents.

Chlorothiazide (Diuril) - A diuretic that helps to reduce blood pressure.

Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) - The "One Flew Over the Cookoo's Nest" drug.

Cimetidine (Tagamet) - Relief from an upset stomach due to acid.

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) - A powerful antibiotic with a wide spectrum of activity.

Cisplatin (Platinol) - Very potent and dangerous anticancer agent.

Clindamycin (Cleocin) - Antibiotic for the eyes and skin.

Clopidogrel Bisulfate (Plavix) - Anticoagulant designed to help prevent strokes and heart attack.

Clotrimazole (Lotrimin) - The antifungal of choice for athlete's foot.

Clozapine (Clozaril) - Antipsychotic that might help with Alzheimer's.

Cocaine (Mucosal) - Eye surgery anesthetic that is often abused.

Cortisone (Cortone) - Steroids to ease the pain of inflammation.

Crixivan (Indinavir) - Protease inhibitor that slows HIV to a crawl.

Cyclosporine (Cyclosporin A) - Immunosuppressive agent to help against organ rejection.

Demerol (Meperidine) - An analgesic pain killer.

Diazepam (Valium) - The universal "chill out" mother's little helper pills.

Dideoxyinosine (DDI, Didanosine) - Anti-AIDS drug that seems to help.

Digoxin (Lanoxin) - Carter's Little Heart Starter.

Diltiazem (Cardizem) - Calcium channel blocker to stop heart attacks.

Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) - Hallucinogenic neurotransmitter derivative that is often abused.

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) - A good anti-histamine when you have hayfever.

Dipyridamole (Dipridacot) - A vasodilator to help prevent stroke.

Dopamine (Dopastat) - Something to get you going.

Doxycycline (Vibramycin) - A broad-spectrum antibiotic useful in prophalaxis of anthrax infections.

Enalapril (Vasotec) - An anti-hypertensive to help reduce your blood pressure.

Ephedrine - Relieves coughs due to colds, flu, and asthma.

Epinephrine (Adrenalin) - A good way to jump-start your motor.

Ergotamine (Ergostat) - Lysergic acid derivative that relieves headaches.

Erythromycin (Erythrocin) - A wide-spectrum antibiotic that cures Legionnaires' disease.

Etidronate (Didronel) - The bone-mending drug.

Fentanyl (Duragesic) - Narcotic analgesic useful in helping to reduce pain and suffering.

Finasteride (Propecia) - Sure-cure for hair loss.

Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) - The date-rape drug with both serious physiological and legal side effects.

Fluocinolone (Fluonid) - An anti-inflammatory corticosteroid.

Fluorouracil (Adrucil) - An antimetabolite useful for treating skin cancer.

Fluoxetine (Prozac) - Antidepressant that can cause suicidal tendencies.

Furosemide (Lasix) - A diuretic-antihypertensive that can fix your heart while draining your kidneys.

Glipizide (Glucotrol XL) - Sulfonylurea useful in treating diabetes mellitus.

Gramicidin (Aristocomb, Sofradex) - A magic gate for ions.

Haloperidol (Haldol) - Antipsychotic useful for controlling hyperactivity.

Heparin (Calciparine) - Anticoagulant useful in heart surgery.

Heroin (Smack) - The bad-news drug that can get you AIDS.

Homidium Bromide (Ethidium) - Anti-trypansomal agent also useful in fluorescent staining of nucleic acids.

Hydrocortisone (Cortaid) - The anti-itch corticosteroid therapy.

Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) - Narcotic analgesic (morphine derivative) useful in pain relief.

Hydroxyurea (Hydrea, Droxya) - Cytotoxic antineoplastic agent that is also useful in treating sickle cell disease.

Ibuprofen (Advil, Nuprin, Motrin) - One of the most common anti-inflammatory drugs.

Insulin (Novolin, Humulin) - The peptide hormone used to treat diabetes.

Interferon (Intron A) - The body's natural protection against viruses.

Irbesartan (Avapro) - Mild antihypertensive agent often used in combination with other drugs.

Isotretinoin (Accutane) - Retinoic acid derivative used to treat severe acne.

Kanamycin (Kantrex) - An unusual internal topical antibiotic.

Ketamine (Ketalar) - Something to give your horse a good buzz.

Lamivudine (3TC, Epivir) - Another agent useful in the treatment of AIDS.

Lidocaine (Xylocaine) - One of the 'caines used to deaden nerves.

Lisinopril (Prinivil) - Another ACE inhibitor useful in blood pressure regulation.

Liothyronine (Cytomel) - Thyroid hormone that assists in metabolism.

Loperamide (Imodium) - Very useful when you have the galloping trots.

Loratadine (Claritin) - Antihistamine that relieves itching and runny nose.

Lovastatin (Mevinolin) - A good drug to help reduce cholesterol.

Magnesium Chloride (Chloromag) - Not really a drug, but an essential salt.

Metaproterenol (Orciprenaline) - A pretty good bronchodilator.

Methadone (Dolophine) - A jump-start on kicking the habit.

Methamphetamine (Desoxyn) - The most abused amphetamine ever synthesized.

Methcathinone (Cat) - Another designer drug that is too often abused.

Methotrexate (Folex, Rheumatrex) - Ubiquitous chemical that helps cancer, fights arthritis, and kills bugs.

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) - Frequently abused "designer drug".

Methylphenidate (Ritalin) - Often used to make children "chill out" and pay attention.

Metoclopramide (Octamide) - Anti-nausea drug makes your tummy better.

Miconazole (Monistat) - The sure cure for jock itch.

Midazolam (Versed) - Benzodiazepine derivative useful for sedation during surgery.

Nicotine (Nicorette) - A drug to help you stop smoking.

Nifedipine (Procardia) - An antihypertensive to reduce your blood pressure.

Novocain (Procaine) - Local anesthetic that helps get your teeth pulled.

Nystatin (Mycostatin) - Sure cure for "there's a fungus among us".

Ofloxacin (Floxin) - Wide spectrum antibiotic that may have problems.

Omeprazole (Prilosec) - Antacid that helps with your ulcer.

Paclitaxel (Taxol) - A good example of how natural products can help us.

Papaverine (Pavarine) - Vasodilator and muscle relaxant.

Phenytoin (Dilantin) - Anti-epilepsy drug to chill you out.

Propoxyphene (Darvon) - Pain- killing narcotic that can be abused.

Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed, Robitussin) - Perhaps the world's most favorite decongestant.

Quinapril (Accupril) - Synthetic isoquinoline derivative useful in controlling high blood pressure and heart failure.

Quinidine (Cardioquin) - An antimalarial agent that treats arrhythmia.

Quinine (Falciquin, Kunen, Rubiquin) - Another antimalarial agent that is a natural product alkaloid.

Ramipril (Altace) - Another ACE inhibitor useful in controlling blood pressure.

Ranitidine (Zantac) - Antacid that helps cure and prevent ulcers.

Ritonavir (Norvir) - Another anti-HIV protease inhibitor that shows hope.

RU-486 (Mifepristone) - The "morning after" pill that also induces abortion.

Rofecoxib (Vioxx) - Anti-inflamatory agent with the potential for serious side effects.

Saquinavir (Invirase) - Another anti-HIV protease inhibitor.

Sertraline (Zoloft) - Synthetic used to treat major cases of depression.

Sildenafil (Viagra) - Wonder drug that treats impotency in men and makes Pfizer rich.

Simvastatin (Zocor) - Cholesterol-lowering agent to help prevent heart attacks.

Somatrem (Protropin) - A protein to help you grow.

Spectinomycin (Trobicin) - Good drug to get rid of the clap bug.

Sucralfate (Carafate) - This gets rid of that nasty old ulcer.

Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim (Bactrim) - Antibiotic cocktail used to treat common infections in children.

Sulfanilamide (Vagitrol) - Forty year old antibiotic that still works.

Sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin) - Another sulfanilamide that is still being used.

Tacrine (Cognex) - A glimmer of hope for Alzheimer's patients.

Tacrolimus (Prograf) - This promising immunosuppressant may have a very wide range of activity, and is useful in transplants involving children.

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) - Amazing new drug that appears to lower breast cancer rates.

Tetrahydozoline (Visine) - Something to clear your red eyes.

Thalidomide (Thalomid) - Now cleared for leprosy, but be very careful.

Theophylline (Asmalix) - Antiasthma drug to help you breathe.

Thiothixene (Navane) - Antipsychotic that will really chill you.

Tramadol (Ultram) - Synthetic pain killer that can be addictive.

Tretinoin (Retin-A) - Vitamin derivative that makes your skin smooth.

Triamterene (Dyrenium) - A synthetic diuretic used to control blood pressure.

Triazolam (Halcion) - Helps you sleep better than milk and cookies.

Trifluridine (Viroptic) - A treatment for Herpes of the eye.

Trihexyphenidyl (Artane) - Anti-Parkinson's drug to keep you steady.

Warfarin (Coumadin) - An anticoagulant used to prevent clotting and strokes.

Zalcitabine (Dideoxycytidine, DDC, or Hivid) - Nucleoside antagonist to treat AIDS.

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