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QX3 Time-Lapse Movie Gallery

Interactive Software User Interface

Welcome to the Molecular Expressions gallery of time-lapse digital image sequences of crystalline specimens recorded with the Intel Play QX3 Computer Microscope. The user interface in this gallery is derived from the actual software provided with the microscope to simulate the actual experience of conducting these experiments. Controls for the movie player operate in a manner idential to the QS3 microscope interactive software. Use the links below to visit individual time-lapse sequences.

Acetylcholine Chloride - Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is responsible for gated binding control of cation channels to allow inflow of sodium into muscle cells.

Acrylamide - Acrylamide is a low molecular weight amide of ethanoic acid that is very useful in forming polymeric gels that are widely used in biochemistry research to separate biopolymers like proteins and DNA. Also available is a second time-lapse movie of recrystallizing acrylamide.

Aminobenzoic Acid (Anthranilic Acid) - Once thought to be a vitamin, ortho-aminobenzoic acid is more commonly known as anthranilic acid. The cadmium salt has seen limited use in veterinary medicine as an asaricide in swine.

Benzotriazole - This nitrogen heterocycle is useful as an intermediate in the synthesis of drugs and polymers. It is prepared by the action of nitric acid on o-phenylenediamine. Explosions have been reported during vacuum distillation to purify the chemical.

Cholesteryl Nonanoate - Cholesterol is a steroid that occurs in almost all animal and human fats as well as in blood and bile and in cell membranes. This important steroid is the precursor of a number of other types of steroids such as bile acids and steroid hormones. The nonanoate ester is made with a straight-chain nine-carbon saturated hydrocarbon carboxylic acid.

Copper Sulfate - Copper sulfate is a water-soluble copper (II) salt that has a wide spectrum of uses ranging from a supplement for animal feed to electrolytic plating of metallic copper.

Cupric Acetate (Verdigris) - This organometallic, also known as verdigris, is prepared by the action of acetic acid on copper oxide or copper carbonate. The purified chemical often used as a catalyst in chemical reactions.

DDT (Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane) - The world's best known pesticide, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane or DDT, is a toxic and deadly chemical that persists in the environment and has been banned in many countries, including the United States.

Ellagic Acid - Ellagic acid is a bicyclic coumarin derivative that is a naturally occurring phytochemical proven effective in arresting mitosis in some carcinomas. Strawberries and other fruits are rich sources of ellagic acid.

Ephedrine - Ephedrine is a member of the adrenergic bronchodilator class of drugs that serve to open up the bronchial tubes of the lungs. These drugs are used to treat the symptoms of asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases as well as to relieve coughs, wheezing and clogged breathing tubes.

Ibuprofen - Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is used to treat symptoms caused by arthritis, such as swelling, pain, and stiffness. This drug is widely available without prescription and is marketed under a variety of trade names including Advil, Nuprin, and Motrin.

Malonic Acid - Malonic acid is a dicarboxylic acid of ethane that is primarily used in the synthesis of barbiturates. The organic acid is prepared by interaction of monochloroacetic acid with sodium cyanide followed by hydrolysis of the resulting cyanoacetic acid.

Menthol - Widely used as a flavor and fragrance chemical, menthol produces a cool sensation when tasted and smelled. It is commercially found in lotions, shaving creams, and cough drops.

Mifepristone (RU-486) - This highly controversial drug was first developed in France, where it is used to induce spontaneous abortion. Although we neither condone nor condemn the use of this drug, it does produce beautiful crystallites that can be imaged under the microscope.

Moth Crystals (para-Dichlorobenzene) - Less toxic than naphthalene, para-dichlorobenzene also has a very high vapor pressure and is effective in disrupting the destruction of clothes by moths. Also available is a second time-lapse movie of moth crystals undergoing sublimation.

Oxalic Acid - Oxalic acid is present in the sap of many plants and is common in vegetables as the potassium or calcium salt. Commercially, oxalic acid is manufactured by passing carbon monoxide into concentrated sodium hydroxide.

Phenanthroline - Phenanthroline is a tri-nuclear aromatic nitrogen heterocycle that is commonly used to form a complex with ferrous ions. This complex is termed "Ferroin", and is used as an indicator in oxidation-reduction systems like the titration of ferrous salts.

Picolinic Acid - An isomer of nicotinic acid, picolinic acid is produced in the pancreas and forms a complex with zinc. This biochemical complex may facilitate the passage of zinc through the gastrointestinal wall and into the circulatory system. Also available is a second time-lapse movie of picolinic acid undergoing recrystallization.

Potassium Thiocyanate - This inorganic chemical is sometimes used as a hypotensive agent in the pharmaceutical industry. Commercial uses include the manufacture of artificial mustard oil, dyeing textiles, and in photography as an intensifier.

Silver Nitrate - The nitrate salt of silver is one of the most useful salts from this precious metal. Silver nitrate is used in photography, the manufacturing of mirrors, silver plating, indelible inks, hair dyeing, coloring ceramics, and etching ivory. The chemical is also very important as a reagent in analytical chemistry to precipitate halogens.

Succinimide - Succinimide is a diketopyrrolidine that is prepared by rapid distillation of ammonium succinate. Therapeutically, succinimide is used to prevent oxalic lithiasis. Also available is a second time-lapse movie of succinimide undergoing recrystallization.

Sulfosalicylic Acid - Sulfosalicylic acid is a trifunctional aromatic compound that undergoes reactions typical of phenols, carboxylic and sulfonic acid moieties. It is used industrially as a chelating agent, an intermediate in the manufacture of surface-active reagents, as an organic catalyst, and grease additive. Also available is a second time-lapse movie of sulfosalicylic acid undergoing recrystallization.

Trinitrotoluene (TNT) - This organic chemical explosive is synthesized in the laboratory by careful nitration of toluene. It reacts vigorously with reducing agents and must be detonated by a high velocity initiator such as nitramine or by efficient concussion. Also available is a second time-lapse movie of trinitrotoluene (TNT) undergoing recrystallization.

Urea - Urea is a by-product of protein catabolism that helps remove excess nitrogen produced by the body during metabolism. This biochemical is then excreted in the urine. Urea is used as a fertilizer due to the high nitrogen content, and can be reacted with aldehydes to produce resins and cross-linked polymers.

Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) - A remarkably versatile vitamin, pyridoxine is involved in numerous biochemical reactions of intermediary metabolism. Common sources of pyridoxine are bananas, carrots, nuts, rice, fish, soybeans, and wheat germ. Also available is a second time-lapse movie of pyridoxine undergoing recrystallization.


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