Microscopy Primer
Light and Color
Microscope Basics
Special Techniques
Digital Imaging
Confocal Microscopy
Live-Cell Imaging
Microscopy Museum
Virtual Microscopy
Web Resources
License Info
Image Use
Custom Photos
Site Info
Contact Us

The Galleries:

Photo Gallery
Silicon Zoo
Chip Shots
DNA Gallery
Amino Acids
Religion Collection
Cocktail Collection
Screen Savers
Win Wallpaper
Mac Wallpaper
Movie Gallery

Microscope Objectives

Selected Literature References

The subject of microscope objective lenses has been reviewed on numerous occasions by a number of distinguished scientists. Many references are comprehensive and cover a majority of topics concerning the structure and function of objectives, while others concentrate on various aspects and specialized applications of these lenses. The list of reference materials provided in this section attempts to cover both early reviews and the latest information available on microscope objectives.

The objective., Rost, F. and Oldfield, R. in Photography with a Microscope, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 70-82 (2000).

Lenses and lens aberrations., Goldstein, D. in Understanding the Light Microscope: A Computer-Aided Introduction, Academic Press, New York, pages 16-26 (1999).

Fundamental optics of microscopy., Herman, B. in Fluorescence Microscopy, BIOS Scientific Publishers - Springer, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 17-20 (1998).

The objective., Bradbury, S. and Bracegirdle, B. in Introduction to Light Microscopy: Microscopy Handbooks, Volume 42, BIOS Scientific Publishers - Springer, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 69-76 (1998).

The objective., Keller, E. in Cells: A Laboratory Manual, Volume 2: Light Microscopy and Cell Structure, Spector, D., Goldman, R., and Leinwand, L. (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 94.9-94.21 (1998).

Performance characteristics of microscope optics., Inoué, S. and Spring, K. in Video Microscopy: The Fundamentals, Plenum Press, New York, pages 49-59 (1997).

Microscope lenses, aberrations., Inoué, S. and Oldenbourg, R. in Handbook of Optics, Volume II, Bass, M. (ed), McGraw-Hill, New York, pages 17.12-17.20 (1995).

Objective lenses for confocal microscopy., Keller, E. in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, Pawley, J. (ed), Plenum Press, New York, pages 111-126 (1995).

Microscope objective design., Shimizu, Y. and Takenaka, H. in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, Volume 14, Academic Press, New York, pages 249-334 (1994).

Objectives., Smith, R. in Microscopy and Photomicrography: A Working Manual, CRC Press, New York, pages 47-58 (1994).

Optics: A Primer., Abramowitz, M., Olympus America, Inc., Melville, New York, 22 pages (1994).

The objective as an optical tool; resolving power., James, J. and Tanke H. in Biomedical Light Microscopy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pages 4-15 (1991).

Primary objective lens design parameters., Richardson, J. in Handbook for the Light Microscope: A User's Guide, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, pages 52-80 (1991).

The objective and the eyepiece., Bradbury, S. in An Introduction to the Optical Microscope, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 49-57 (1989).

The optical system., Evennett, P. in Light Microscopy in Biology, Lacey, A. (ed), IRL Press, New York, pages 67-71 (1989).

The matching principle and the design of microscope objectives., Conrady, A. in Applied Optics and Optical Design, Part II, Kingslake, R. (ed), Dover Publications, Inc., New York, pages 662-706 (1988).

Objectives., Delly, J. in Photography Through the Microscope, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, pages 5-11 (1988).

The optical system of the microscope, its principal parameters and properties (bright-field microscopy)., Pluta, M. in Advanced Light Microscopy, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Properties, Elsevier, New York, pages 179-239 (1988).

Objectives., Abramowitz, A. in Microscope: Basics and Beyond, The Olympus Corporation, Melville, New York, pages 11-13, 21-26 (1987).

Selected pages from: Microscope image formation., Inoué, S. in Video Microscopy, Plenum Press, New York, pages 93-104, 125-136 (1987).

Objectives., McCrone, W., McCrone, L., and Delly, J. in Polarized Light Microscopy, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, pages 15-19 (1984).

Aberrations and microscope design., Spencer, M. in Fundamentals of Light Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, New York, pages 63-69 (1982).

The microscope objective: oil immersion., Slayter, E. in Optical Methods in Biology, Wiley-Interscience, New York, pages 269-273 (1980).

Objectives., Marmasse, C. in Microscopes and Their Uses, Gordon and Breach, New York, pages 57-106 (1980).

Choosing Optics: Objectives., McLaughlin, R. in Special Methods in Light Microscopy, Microscope Publications, Ltd., Chicago, pages 3-19 (1977).

The microscope objective., Bradbury, S. in The Optical Microscope in Biology, Edward Arnold, Ltd., London, pages 13-17 (1976).

Optical controls in the image-forming system., Zieler, W. in The Optical Performance of the Light Microscope, Part 1, Microscope Publications, Ltd., pages 41-52 (1972).

General optical principles: the compound microscope., Loveland, R. in Photomicrography: A Comprehensive treatise, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, pages 50-91 (1970).

Objectives., Hallimond, A. in The Polarizing Microscope, Vickers, Ltd., York, United Kingdom, pages 23-27 (1970).

Microscopes., Benford, J. and Rosenberger, H. in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume IV: Optical Instruments, Part I, Kingslake, R. (ed), Academic Press, New York, pages 31-93 (1967).

Microscope objectives., Benford, J. in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume III, Kingslake, R. (ed), Academic Press, New York, pages 145-182 (1965).

The testing of complete objectives., Shannon, R. in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume III, Kingslake, R. (ed), Academic Press, New York, pages 183-229 (1965).

Achromatic, fluorite, and apochromatic objectives., Needham, G. in The Practical Use of the Microscope, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pages 230-256 (1958).

Light, lenses, images, and objectives., Shillaber, C. in Photomicrography in Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pages 148-285 (1944).

Objectives., Chamot, E. and Mason, C. in Handbook of Chemical Microscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pages 8-30 (1938).


Questions or comments? Send us an email.
© 1998-2013 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University. All Rights Reserved. No images, graphics, scripts, or applets may be reproduced or used in any manner without permission from the copyright holders. Use of this website means you agree to all of the Legal Terms and Conditions set forth by the owners.
This website is maintained by our
Graphics & Web Programming Team
in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.
Last modification: Tuesday, Jan 28, 2003 at 04:57 PM
Access Count Since December 26, 2000: 29271
For more information on microscope manufacturers,
use the buttons below to navigate to their websites: