Microscopy Primer
Light and Color
Microscope Basics
Special Techniques
Digital Imaging
Confocal Microscopy
Live-Cell Imaging
Photomicrography
Microscopy Museum
Virtual Microscopy
Fluorescence
Web Resources
License Info
Image Use
Custom Photos
Partners
Site Info
Contact Us
Publications
Home

The Galleries:

Photo Gallery
Silicon Zoo
Pharmaceuticals
Chip Shots
Phytochemicals
DNA Gallery
Microscapes
Vitamins
Amino Acids
Birthstones
Religion Collection
Pesticides
BeerShots
Cocktail Collection
Screen Savers
Win Wallpaper
Mac Wallpaper
Movie Gallery

Köhler Illumination: Interactive Java Tutorials

Condenser Alignment
and
Field Diaphragm Opening Size

This tutorial demonstrates how the condenser is centered in the optical path and the size of the field diaphragm opening is determined when adjusting a microscope for proper Köhler illumination. Operating instructions appear just below the tutorial window.

Interactive Java Tutorial
ATTENTION
Our servers have detected that your web browser does not have the Java Virtual Machine installed or it is not functioning properly. Please install this software in order to view our interactive Java tutorials. You may download the necessary software by clicking on the "Get It Now" button below.

 

The default initial state of the microscope is severely out of alignment. To operate this tutorial, use the sliders to shift the focus of the sample image and to position both the condenser and the field diaphragm according to the steps below:

  • Use the "Specimen Fine Focus" slider to focus the specimen. This is similar to adjusting the coarse and fine focus on the microscope.
  • Adjust the "Diaphragm Opening Size" slider to close the field diaphragm to its narrowest opening size. On a real microscope, this is usually done using a knurled wheel or lever at the base of the microscope.
  • The "Condenser Height" slider simulates raising and lowering of the condenser on its substage-mounted rack. Use this slider to "focus" the leaves of the field diaphragm. When comparing this part of the tutorial to a real microscope, consider that this action mimics hand-rotation of the substage condenser elevating knob that moves the condenser up and down with respect to the microscope stage.
  • Slide the X and Y Translation sliders until the closed field diaphragm image is centered in the viewfield.
  • Alternatively, use the mouse cursor and the left-hand mouse button to move the white circle inside of the "Condenser Alignment" box. This allows for simultaneous translation in both the X and Y directions.
  • After the image of the field diaphragm is centered and focused, use the "Diaphragm Opening Size" slider to increase the size of the field diaphragm opening until it just clears the yellow hatch marks in the viewfield. This is the optimum adjustment for photomicrography.
  • Use the "Reset" button to randomly change the default alignment parameters so that students can practice over and over again until they have a comfortable "feel" for condenser and field diaphragm alignment.

Contributing Authors

Mortimer Abramowitz - Olympus America, Inc., Two Corporate Center Drive., Melville, New York, 11747.

Matthew J. Parry-Hill and Michael W. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.


BACK TO ANATOMY OF THE MICROSCOPE

Questions or comments? Send us an email.
© 1998-2013 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University. All Rights Reserved. No images, graphics, scripts, or applets may be reproduced or used in any manner without permission from the copyright holders. Use of this website means you agree to all of the Legal Terms and Conditions set forth by the owners.
This website is maintained by our
Graphics & Web Programming Team
in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.
Last modification: Wednesday, Mar 26, 2014 at 02:23 PM
Access Count Since April 30, 1999: 101398
For more information on microscope manufacturers,
use the buttons below to navigate to their websites: