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Image Formation

Selected Literature References

An understanding of the distribution of light intensity throughout images observed in the optical microscope involves the laws of physical optics. Of primary consideration is the diffraction pattern exhibited by the specimen, which is composed of an array of elementary constituents known as the Airy disk. These and related concepts are reviewed in the reference materials listed below.

Paraxial image formation., Lanni, F. and Keller, E. in Imaging Neurons: A Laboratory Manual, Yuste, R., Lanni, F., and Konnerth, A. (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 1.4-1.7 (2000).

Elementary diffraction theory., Goldstein, D. in Understanding the Light Microscope, Academic Press, New York, pages 27-44 (1999).

Summary of the process of image formation in the microscope., Lacey, A. in Light Microscopy in Biology: A Practical Approach, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 3-6, 286-290 (1999).

Diffraction and resolution: the Rayleigh limit and the Airy Disk., Keller, E. in Cells: A Laboratory Manual, Volume 2, Spector, D., Goldman, R., and Leinwand, L. (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 94.9-94.14 (1998).

More on image formation., Bradbury, S. and Bracegirdle, B. in Introduction to Light Microscopy, RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Vol. 42, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 55-58, 61-69 (1998).

Image resolution and wave optics., Inoué, S. and Spring, K. in Video Microscopy: The Fundamentals, Plenum Press, New York, pages 26-37 (1997).

General optical considerations., Inoué, S. and Oldenbourg, R. in Handbook of Optics, Volume II: Devices, Measurements & Properties, Bass, M. (ed), McGraw-Hill, New York, pages 17.4-17.12 (1995).

Diffraction patterns., Slayter, E. and Slayter, H. in Light and Electron Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 43-50 (1992).

The light microscope as a tool for observation and measurement: illumination and image formation., James, J. and Tanke, H. in Biomedical Light Microscope, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pages 25-49 (1991).

Optical parameters controlled by the microscopist., Richardson, J. in Handbook for the Light Microscope: A User's Guide, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, pages 69-77 (1991).

Diffraction and resolution., Bradbury, S. in An Introduction to the Optical Microscope, RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Vol. 1, Oxford Scientific, Publications, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 26-34 (1989).

Image fidelity: characterizing the imaging transfer function., Young, I. in Methods in Cell Biology, Volume 30, Taylor, D. and Wang, Y. (eds), Academic Press, New York, pages 1-45 (1989).

Imaging of unresolved objects, superresolution, and precision of distance measurement with video microscopy., Inoué, S. in Methods in Cell Biology, Volume 30, Taylor, D. and Wang, Y. (eds), Academic Press, New York, pages 85-112 (1989).

The optical system of the microscope, its principal parameters and properties., Pluta, M. in Advanced Light Microscopy, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Properties, Elsevier, New York, pages 179-239 (1988).

Image formation resulting from deviated and undeviated light., Abramowitz, M. in Contrast Methods in Microscopy: Transmitted Light, Olympus America, Melville, New York pages 6-11 (1987).

The microscope image in wave optics., Locquin, M. and Langeron, M. in Handbook of Microscopy, Butterworths, Boston, pages 6-8 (1983).

Objective and its primary image., Loveland, R. in Photomicrography: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume I, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, pages 50-78 (1981).

Resolving power and numerical aperture., Marmasse, C. in Microscopes and Their Uses, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, pages 64-82 (1980).

Geometrical relations between object and image., Zieler, H. in The Optical Performance of the Light Microscope, Part I, Microscope Publications, Ltd., Chicago, pages 25-41 (1972).

Diffraction of light and its effect on the microscope image., Crosslett, V. in Modern Microscopy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, pages 65-71 (1968).

The periodic nature of light and its consequences., Martin, L. in The Theory of the Microscope, American Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, pages 28-94 (1966).

Physical aspects of image formation in microscopy., Francon, M. in Progress in Microscopy, Volume 9, Row, Peterson, and Company, New York pages 1-63 (1961).

The wave theory of microscopic image formation., Zernike, F. in Concepts of Classical Optics, Strong, J. (ed), W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, pages 525-536 (1958).

The effects of a lens on light., Shillaber, C. in Photomicrography in Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pages 189-201 (1944).

Image formation by a lens., Allen, R. in The Microscope, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, pages 19-25 (1940).

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