Virtual Microscopy
Microscopy Primer
License Info
Image Use
Custom Photos
Partners
Site Info
Contact Us
Publications
Home

Visit Science,
Optics, & You


The Galleries:

Photo Gallery
Silicon Zoo
Pharmaceuticals
Chip Shots
Phytochemicals
DNA Gallery
Microscapes
Vitamins
Amino Acids
Birthstones
Religion Collection
Pesticides
Beershots
Cocktail Collection
Screen Savers
Win Wallpaper
Mac Wallpaper
Movie Gallery

The Sugar Pine

The Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) is a softwood tree found primarily in the Cascades and Klamath mountains of Oregon and the Sierras and Yosemite mountains of California. The sapwood ranges from nearly white to pale yellow brown in color, and is frequently discolored by blue stain. Also discolored with a brown stain is the heartwood, which varies in hue from light brown to pale red.


Cross Section


Radial Section


Tangential Section

The sugar pine is an immense forest tree, growing to an average of 200 feet and having large, cylindrical 10 to 20-inch long cones that are up to 4 inches thick. Dark bluish green leaf needles occur 5 to a cluster and range from 3 to 4 inches long. Often planted as a shade or screen tree, the sugar pine grows well in northwestern states, but is seldom seen east of the Rocky Mountains.

Today, the biggest sugar pine measures 270 feet high with a trunk circumference of 348 inches and a branch spread of 68 feet on all sides. This huge specimen was recorded by the National Register of Big Trees in 1992 and can be visited at the Yosemite National Park, in California. Sugar pine wood is used to make boxes and crates, and is sometimes used for millwork (door, sash, interior and exterior trim, and siding panels). Lower grades of this wood are used for building construction (sheathing, subflooring, and roofing).

Microscopic examination of iron-alum hematoxylin and safranin stained thin sections (see the digital images presented above) reveals a gradual transition from spring to summer wood. Tracheids average between 40 and 50 micrometers in diameter and bordered pits occur in one to two rows along the radial walls. Longitudinal parenchyma is lacking, and the rays are of two types, uniseriate and fusiform. Resin canals have thin-walled epithelium in the sapwood, but thick-walled in the heartwood and frequently occluded with tylosoids.

BACK TO THE TREES COLLECTION

Questions or comments? Send us an email.
© 1995-2013 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University. All Rights Reserved. No images, graphics, software, scripts, or applets may be reproduced or used in any manner without permission from the copyright holders. Use of this website means you agree to all of the Legal Terms and Conditions set forth by the owners.
This website is maintained by our
Graphics & Web Programming Team
in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.
Last modification: Friday, Aug 01, 2003 at 11:43 AM
Access Count Since February 1, 1999: 23936
Microscopes provided exclusively by: