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Phase Contrast Microscopy

Selected Literature References

A number of excellent books, review articles, and original research reports on phase contrast microscopy have been published by leading researchers in the field and were utilized as references to prepare the phase contrast discussions included in the Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer. This section contains periodical location information about these articles, as well as providing a listing of selected original research reports and books describing specimen contrast and the classical techniques of phase contrast light microscopy.

Books

Phase Contrast and Interference Microscopy for Cell Biologists, Ross, K., Edward Arnold Publishers, Ltd., London, England, 287 pages (1967).

Phase Microscopy: Principles and Applications, Bennett, A., Osterberg, H, Jupnik, H. and Richards, O., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 320 pages (1951).

Review Articles

Optical microscopy., Davidson, M. and Abramowitz, M., Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, Vol. II, Hornak, J. (ed), Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1106-1141 (2002).

Basics of a light microscopy imaging system and its application in biology., Davidson, L. and Keller, R., Methods in Cellular Imaging, Periasamy, A. (ed), Oxford University Press, New York, 53-65 (2001).

Phase contrast microscopy., Murphy, D., Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging, Wiley-Liss, New York, 97-112 (2001).

Microscopy and microscope optical systems., Lanni, F. and Keller, E., Imaging Neurons: A Laboratory Manual, Yuste, R., Lanni, F. and Konnerth, A., (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1.1-1.72 (2000).

Phase-contrast microscopy., Rost, F. and Oldfield, R., Photography with a Microscope, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 131-136 (2000).

Extension of the Abbe theory to transparent objects (Zernike's phase contrast)., Goldstein, D., Understanding the Light Microscope, Academic Press, New York, 45-55 (1999).

Phase contrast., Lacey, A., Light Microscopy in Biology: A Practical Approach, Lacey, A. (ed), Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 23-25 (1999).

Phase contrast., Ruzin, S., Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy, Oxford University Press, New York, 17-20 (1999).

Contrast enhancement techniques for light microscopy., Sanderson, J., Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, Vol. III, Celis, J. (ed), Academic Press, New York, 15-33 (1998).

Phase contrast., Keller, E., Cells: A Laboratory Manual, Vol. II, Spector, D., Goldman, R., and Leinwand, L., (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 94.30-94.31 (1998).

Contrast II: Techniques using condenser plus objective., Foster, B., Optimizing Light Microscopy for Biological and Clinical Laboratories, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 63-69 (1997).

Phase contrast, modulation contrast, single-sideband edge enhancement (SSEE)., Inoué, S. and Spring, K., Video Microscopy: The Fundamentals, Plenum Press, New York, 71-75 (1997).

Phase contrast and modulation contrast., Bradbury, S. and Evennett, P., Contrast Techniques in Light Microscopy, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Ltd., Oxford, England, 59-76 (1996).

Contrast generation., Inoué, S. and Oldenbourg, R., Handbook of Optics II: Devices, Measurements, and Properties, Bass, M. (ed), McGraw-Hill, New York, 17.22-17.27 (1995).

Phase-contrast illumination., Polaroid Technical Assistance, Photomicrography: Instant Photography Through the Microscope, Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 56-57 (1995).

Contrast: phase, amplitude, and color., Rochow, T. and Tucker, P., Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X Rays, or Acoustics, Plenum Press, New York, 199-220 (1994).

Phase contrast microscopy., Oldfield, R., Light Microscopy: An Illustrated Guide, Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd., London, England, 95-104 (1994).

Principles, practice, and applications of video-enhanced contrast microscopy., Weiss, D. and Maile, W., Electronic Light Microscopy: Techniques in Modern Biomedical Microscopy, Shotton, D. (ed), Wiley-Liss, New York, 106-140 (1993).

Imaging of phase objects., Slayter, E. and Slayter, H., Light and Electron Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 149-167 (1992).

Phase contrast microscopy., Richardson, J., Handbook for the Light Microscope: A User's Guide, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 147-165 (1991).

Special optical techniques of image formation: phase-contrast microscopy., James, J. and Tanke, H., Biomedical Light Microscopy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Massachusetts, 67-78 (1991).

Phase contrast and Nomarski interference., Smith, R., Microscopy and Photomicrography: A Working Manual, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 59-69 (1990).

Phase contrast microscopy., Pluta, M., Advanced Light Microscopy: Vol. II, Specialized Methods, Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, 1-90 (1989).

Microscopic objects: classification and notions., Pluta, M., Advanced Light Microscopy: Vol. I, Principles and Basic Properties, Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, 129-134 (1988).

Phase-contrast method., Delly, J., Photography Through the Microscope, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, 75-76 (1988).

Phase contrast microscopy., Determann, H. and Lepusch, F., The Microscope and Its Application, Ernst Leitz Wetzlar, Inc., Deerfield, Illinois, 19-22 and 47-48 (1988).

Generation of image contrast., Inoué, S., Video Microscopy, Plenum Press, New York, 118-126 (1986).

Phase contrast microscopy., Abramowitz, M., Contrast Methods in Microscopy: Transmitted Light, Olympus America Inc., New York, 19-23 (1985).

Bright-field, phase and dark-field microscopy., Spencer, M., Fundamentals of Light Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, New York, 32-39 (1982).

The application of phase microscopy., Loveland, R., Photomicrography: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. II, Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Florida, 540-554 (1981).

Phase contrast microscopy., Marmasse, C., Microscopes and Their Uses, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Inc., New York, 280-297 (1980).

Methods in achieving and improving contrast., McLaughlin, R., Special Methods in Light Microscopy, Microscope Publications, Ltd., Chicago, Illinois, 81-126 (1977).

Phase contrast microscopy., Bradbury, S., The Optical Microscope in Biology, Edward Arnold Publishers, Ltd., London, England, 26-33 (1976).

Origins of contrast., Slayter, E., Optical Methods in Biology, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 253-263 (1970).

Phase contrast microscopy., Slayter, E., Optical Methods in Biology, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 288-302 (1970).

The microscopy of phase objects., Martin, L., The Theory of the Microscope, American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., New York, 338-412 (1966).

Phase-contrast microscopy., Francon, M., Progress in Microscopy, Row, Peterson and Company, New York, 64-93 (1961).

Phase, interference and polarizing microscopy., Barer, R., Analytical Cytology, Mellors, R. (ed), McGraw-Hill, New York, 169-272 (1959).

The phase-contrast microscope., Needham, G., The Practical Use of the Microscope, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, 151-162 (1958).

Original Research Reports

Getting the best out of your microscope., Bradbury, S., Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society: 15, 270-279 (1980).

Measurement with phase and interference microscopes., Richards, O., Symposium on Microcopy, ASTM STP: 257, 6-18 (1959).

How I discovered phase contrast., Zernike, F., Science: 121, 345-349 (1955).

A vector theory of phase contrast and interference contrast. III. Negative phase contrast., Barer, R., Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society: 73, 30-39 (1953).

A vector theory of phase contrast and interference contrast. IV. Type B phase contrast., Barer, R., Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society: 73, 206-215 (1953).

A vector theory of phase contrast and interference contrast. I. Positive phase contrast., Barer, R., Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society: 72, 10-38 (1952).

A vector theory of phase contrast and interference contrast. II. Positive phase contrast (continued)., Barer, R., Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society: 72, 81-88 (1952).

The refractometry of living cells., Barer, R. and Ross, K., Journal of Physiology: 118, 38-46 (1952).

Phase-contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects. Part I.., Zernike, F., Physica: 9, 686-698 (1942).

Phase-contrast, a new method for microscopic observation of transparent objects. Part II.., Zernike, F., Physica: 9, 974-986 (1942).

Diffraction theory of the knife-edge test and its improved form, the phase-contrast method., Zernike, F., Royal Astronomy Society Monthly Notices: 94, 377-384 (1934).


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