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Microscope Illumination

Selected Literature References

Gathered from our vast library of literature on optical microscopy, the reference materials listed in this section are an excellent source of additional information on microscope illumination. Included in this section are references to review articles and original research reports that discuss various aspects of the theory and applications regarding how microscopes are configured to take advantage of various illumination scenarios. In addition, basic articles describing the properties of a variety of natural and artificial light sources are included.

Illuminators, filters, and isolation of specific wavelengths., Murphy, D., in Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Digital Imaging, Wiley-Liss (John Wiley and Sons), New York, New York, pages 29-41 (2001).

Light sources., Reichman, J., in Handbook of Optical Filters for Fluorescence Microscopy, Chroma Technology Corporation, Brattleboro, Vermont, pages 15-16 (2000).

Microscopy and microscope optical systems: Principal optical components and Koehler illumination., Lanni, F. and Keller, H., in Imaging Neurons: A Laboratory Manual, Yuste, R., Lanni, F. and Konnerth, A. (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 1.23-1.26 (2000).

The illumination system., Rost, F. and Oldfield, R., in Photography with a Microscope, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 22-24; 48-52; 87-107 (2000).

The significant details - Illumination and Koehler illumination., Abramowitz, M., in Selected Papers on Optical Microscopy, Rhodes, M. (ed), SPIE Milestones Series, Volume MS 163, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Washington, pages 12-14 (2000).

Illumination systems., in Microscope Components for Transmitted Light Applications, Nikon, Inc., Melville, New York, pages 18-19 (1999).

Illumination units., in Olympus Microscope Components Guide, Olympus Optical Company Limited, Tokyo, Japan, pages C1-C3 (1999).

Köhler illumination., Lacey, A., in Light Microscopes in Biology, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 7-10 (1999).

Köhler vs. "critical" illumination., Goldstein, D., in Understanding the Light Microscope: A Computer-Aided Introduction, Academic Press, London, United Kingdom, pages 9-15; 34-35; 56-59; 74 (1999).

Principles of specimen illumination., Ruzin, S., in Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy, Oxford University Press, New York, pages 13-14 (1999).

An introduction to light microscopy, Volume 3. Illumination., Oldfield, R., in Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook, Volume 3, Second Edition, Celis, J. (ed), Academic Press, San Diego, California, pages 8-10 (1998).

Illumination., Abramowitz, M., in Photomicrography - A Practical Guide - Basics and Beyond 5, Olympus America, Melville, New York, page 4 (1998).

Illumination of the specimen., Bradbury, S. and Bracegirdle, B., in Introduction to Light Microscopy, RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Vol. 42, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 59-61 ; 103-107 (1998).

Köhler illumination., Herman, B., in Fluorescence Microscopy (second edition), RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Vol. 40, BIOS Scientific Publishers - Springer, Oxford, United Kingdom, page 39-40 (1998).

Light microscopy., Spector, D., Goldman, R., and Leinwand, L., in Cells: A Laboratory Manual, Volume 2: Light Microscopy and Cell Structure, Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 94.1-94.9 (1998).

Microscope illumination., Foster, B., in Optimizing Light Microscopy for Biological and Clinical Laboratories, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, page 52-57 (1997).

Microscope image formation - Principles of Köhler illumination., Inoué, S. and Spring, K., in Video Microscopy: The Fundamentals, Second Edition, Plenum Press, New York, New York, pages 22-26 (1997).

Bright-field and dark-ground techniques., Bradbury, S. and Evennett, P., in Contrast Techniques in Light Microscopy, RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Vol. 34, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 21-42 (1996).

Illumination., Winsby, R., in Microscopy - First Steps into a Secret World, Manchester Microscopical and Natural History Society, Manchester, United Kingdom, pages 17-22 (1996).

Illumination., Bracegirdle, B. and Bradbury, S., in Modern PhotoMICROgraphy, RMS Microscopy Handbook, Vol. 33, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 9-15 (1995).

Illumination and imaging modes., Inoué, S. and Oldenbourg, R., in Handbook of Optics, Volume II, Bass, M., Van Stryland, E., Williams, D., and Wolfe, W. (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, pages 17.37-17.39 (1995).

Illumination methods., Bracegirdle, B., in Scientific PhotoMACROgraphy, RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Volume 31, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 31-37; 42-43; 55; 63-72 (1995).

Köhler illumination., McCann, M., in Photomicrography: Instant Photography Through the Microscope, Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pages 13-26; 51-62 (1995).

Trouble-shooting illumination., in How to Improve Photography Through the Microscope, Olympus Optical Company, Tokyo, Japan, pages 67-83 (1995).

A new system of illumination for photomicrographic purposes. (translation), Köhler, A., in Köhler Illumination Centenary, Royal Microscopical Society, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 1-5 (1994).

Compound microscopes using reflected light: Illumination., Rochow, T. and Tucker, P., in Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X Rays, or Acoustics, Plenum Press, New York, New York, pages 27-29; 48; 56-58; 68-71 (1994).

Condensers and lighting., Oldfield, R., in Light Microscopy: An Illustrated Guide, Wolfe Publishing, Aylesbury, United Kingdom, pages 23-40 (1994).

Illumination., Schade, K.-H., in Light Microscopy: Technology and Application, Verlag Moderne Industrie, Landsberg, Germany, pages 20-24 (1994).

Köhler illumination: A simple interpretation., Evenett, P., in Köhler Illumination Centenary, Royal Microscopical Society, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 10-13 (1994).

Köhler illumination in modern light microscopy., Gundlach, H., in Köhler Illumination Centenary, Royal Microscopical Society, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 14-16 (1994).

Microscopical illumination in the 1890s., Bracegirdle, B., in Köhler Illumination Centenary, Royal Microscopical Society, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 16-21 (1994).

One hundredth anniversary of Köhler illumination., Haselmann, H. in Köhler Illumination Centenary, Royal Microscopical Society, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 6-9 (1994).

The compound microscope and Köhler illumination (bright field observation)., Rubbi, C., in Light Microscopy: Essential Data, John Wiley & Sons Limited, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom, pages 7-10; 27 (1994).

Arrangement and function of the illumination., Determann, H. and Lepusch, F., in The Microscope and its Application, Wild Leitz, GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, page 8-10; 28; 59; 63; 80-85 (1992).

Illuminating system., in Basics of the Optical Microscope, Olympus Optical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, pages 20-23 (1992).

Light sources., Becker, E., in Fluorescence Microscopy, Wild Leitz, GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, pages 19-22 (1992).

The light microscope: Microscope elements and microscope systems., Slayter, E. and Slayter, H., in Light and Electron Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 131-134 (1992).

Brightfield transmitted light microscopy - the optical system: Illumination., Richardson, J., in Handbook for the Light Microscope: A User's Guide, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, pages 42-48; 93-97 (1991).

The light microscope as a tool for observation and measurement: Illumination and image formation., James, J. and Tanke, H., in Biomedical Light Microscopy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pages 25-49 (1991).

Koehler illumination., Abramowitz, M., in Reflected Light Microscopy - An Overview - Basics and Beyond 3, Olympus America, Melville, New York, pages 10-13 (1990).

Set-up and alignment: Köhler illumination., Smith, R., in Microscopy and Photomicrography: A Working Manual, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pages 22-27 (1990).

Illuminating system - Illuminator, fiber optic., Bradbury, S., Evenett, P., Haselmann, H., and Piller, H., in RMS Dictionary of Light Microscopy, RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Volume 15, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 25-26 (1989).

Illumination and some problems with photography of specimens at low magnifications, and possible solutions., Klosevych, S., in Principles and Practice of Microscopy and Scientific Photography, Microscopical Society of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, pages 11-14; 35-46 (1989).

Enhancing specimen visibility and illumination systems., Delly, J., in Photography Through the Microscope, Ninth Edition, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, pages 24-38; 71-81; 87-91 (1988).

The optical system of the microscope, its principal parameters and properties (bright-field microscopy)., Pluta, M., in Advanced Light Microscopy, Volume 1: Principles and Basic Properties, Elsevier Science Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pages 211-218 (1988).

Light sources and illumination., Ploem, J. and Tanke, H., in Introduction to Fluorescence Microscopy, RMS Microscopy Handbooks, Volume 10, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pages 5-11; 36-37 (1987).

Adjusting the microscope for Koehler illumination., Inoué, S., in Video Microscopy, Plenum Press, New York, New York, pages 101-110; 126-133 (1986).

Illumination., Abramowitz, M., in Microscope - Basics and Beyond 1, Olympus America, Melville, New York, pages 19-21 (1985).

Light sources and instruments for special applications., Patzelt, W., in Polarized Light Microscopy - Principles, Instruments, Applications, Ernst Leitz Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, pages 21; 42-43 (1985).

Setting up field-focused illumination., White, G., in Setting-up the Microscope, Quekett Microscopical Club, London, United Kingdom, pages 1-8 (1983).

The microscope - A basic guide., Hartley, W., in Quekett Microscopical Club Monographs 6, Quekett Microscopical Club, London, United Kingdom, pages 12-14; 28-34 (1983).

Köhler illumination., Spencer, M., in Fundamentals of Light Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 4-8; 42-43 (1982).

Photomicrography and illumination - Illumination techniques., Loveland, R., in Photomicrography: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume I, Second edition, Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, pages 166-204; 223-236 (1981).

Illumination methods in brightfield microscopy., Marmasse, C., in Microscopes and Their Uses, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, New York, pages 160-184 (1980).

Köhler illumination., Cebulla, D.-M., in Handbook of Incident Light Microscopy, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany, pages 15-19 (1979).

Illumination., McLaughlin, R., in Special Methods in Light Microscopy, Monographs in Microscope Series, Vol. 17, Microscope Publications Limited, London, United Kingdom, pages 30-37 (1977).

Illumination of the object., Bradbury, S., in The Optical Microscope in Biology - Studies in Biology 59, The Institute of Biology, Edward Arnold Limited, London, United Kingdom, pages 10-13 (1976).

Illumination., McLaughlin, R., in Accessories for the Light Microscope, Monographs in Microscope Series, Vol. 16, Microscope Publications Limited, London, United Kingdom, pages 169-170 (1975).

Transmitted or incident light fluorescence?., Holz, H., in Worthwhile Facts About Fluorescence Microscopy, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany, pages 23-29 (1975).

How microslides are illuminated., in Photography Through the Microscope, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, pages 25-30 (1974).

Image formation of nonself-luminous objects., Zieler, H., in The Optical Performance of the Light Microscope, Part Two, Microscope Publications, Ltd., London, United Kingdom, pages 31-49; 51-73 (1974).

Light sources., Koch, K.-F., in Fluorescence Microscopy - Instruments, Methods, Applications, Ernst Leitz Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, pages 8-10 (1972).

The illumination system., Zieler, H., in The Optical Performance of the Light Microscope, Part One, Microscope Publications Ltd., London, United Kingdom, pages 53-66 (1972).

Light sources., Trachsler, H., in The Microscope as a Camera, Traber, H. (ed), Amphoto, Inc., New York, New York, pages 11-25 (1971).

Methods of microscopy - Bright-field microscopy., Uhlig, M., in The Microscope as a Camera, Traber, H. (ed), Amphoto, New York, New York, pages 26-30; 38-40 (1971).

Illuminating systems., Koch, K.-F., in Image-Forming and Illuminating Systems of the Microscope, Ernst Leitz Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, pages 32-36 (1970).

Light microscopy - Illumination of the specimen in the compound microscope., Slayter, E., in Optical Methods in Biology, Wiley-Interscience, New York, New York, pages 266-269 (1970).

Further properties of optical systems., Martin, L., in The Theory of the Microscope, American Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, New York, pages 105-110 (1966).

Physical aspects of image formation., Francon, M., in Progress in Microscopy, Row, Peterson and Company, Evanston, Illinois, pages 24-48 (1961).

Critical illumination: Nelson and Köhler methods., Needham, G., in The Practical Use of the Microscope Including Photomicrography, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois, pages 315-343 (1958).

Illumination technique and systems., Shillaber, C., in Photomicrography in Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York, pages 89-107; 308-310 (1944).

General optical principles and illumination., in Photomicrography: An introduction to photography with the microscope, Thirteenth edition, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, pages 13-15; 108-109 (1935).

The collecting-lens system and illumination., Barnard, J. and Welch, F., in Practical Photo-Micrography, Second edition, Edward Arnold and Company, London, United Kingdom, pages 69-107; 140-143 (1925).

Illumination - General., Cross, M. and Cole, M., in Modern Microscopy: A Handbook for Beginners and Students, Fifth edition, Ballière, Tindall and Cox, London, United Kingdom, pages 16-23 (1922).

Illumination by diffused light., Hind, H. and Randles, W., in Handbook of Photomicrography, George Routledge and Sons, Limited, London, United Kingdom, pages 114-126; 133-139; 145-152 (1913).

Illuminating apparatus., Wright, L., in A Popular Handbook to the Microscope, The Religious Tract Society, London, United Kingdom, pages 74-77 (1895).

On the illumination of objects., Quekett, J., in Practical Treatise on the Use of the Microscope, Science Heritage Limited, Lincolnwood, Illinois, pages 170-179 (1848; facsimile reprint 1987).

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