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Advanced Condenser Systems: Abbe Condensers
Oblique Transmitted (Hoffman-Style) Illumination

Molten Wax Crystallites

Waxes are typically long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, which have melting points that increase with molecular weight. Partially crystallized molten wax was imaged using Hoffman-style oblique illumination to increase contrast in the lower digital image of these unstained specimens.

Molten Wax at 200x Magnification
(Brightfield)

Molten Wax at 200x Magnification
(Oblique Illumination)

Transmitted oblique illumination was obtained with a Hoffman-style substage condenser fitted with an offset aperture slit, which provides illumination from an oblique angle with respect to the optical axis of the QX3 microscope. Digital images were recorded with the QX3 interactive software operating from the Live View menu. In the case of birefringent specimens, a polarizer was added beneath the Hoffman condenser and an analyzer was placed in front of the QX3 lens cover. In some instances, a full-wave retardation plate was inserted between the specimen and the analyzer before capturing images.

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